“เวนเกอร์” เผย !! เครียดสุด ๆ คุม “ปืนใหญ่”

ข่าวฟุตบอล

ออกมากล่าวยอมรับว่ารู้สึกเครียดมาก ๆ กับการทำหน้าที่คุมทีม อาร์เซน่อล สำหรับ อาร์แซน เวนเกอร์ ระบุ บางครั้งก็รู้สึกเครียดสุด ๆ โดยเฉพาะเมื่อทีมพ่ายแพ้มา มันจะทำให้ตนเองรู้สึกผิดมาก  ๆ และยิ่งเมื่อแฟน ๆของสโมสรได้ออกมาขับไล่ ยิ่งทำให้ตนเองหนักใจสุด ๆ

อาร์แซน เวนเกอร์ ผู้จัดการทีม อาร์เซน่อล ทีมสโมสรแห่งศึกพรีเมียร์ลีก อังกฤษ ได้ออกมากล่าวเปิดเผยว่า บางครั้งก็รู้สึกเครียดมาก ๆ กับการทำหน้าที่คุมทีมดังแห่งนี้ โดยเฉพาะเมื่อนำพาทีมคว้าผลการแข่งขันพ่ายแพ้หลังจากที่เข้ามาทำหน้าที่คุมทีม “ปืนใหญ่” ตั้งแต่ปี 1996

โดย ฤดูกาลที่แล้วแฟนบอล “ปืนใหญ่” หลายคนได้ออกมาเรียกร้องให้ เวนเกอร์ อำลาจากตำแหน่งไปได้แล้ว หลังจากที่ทำหน้าที่คุมทีมมาหลายปี แต่ก็ไม่ประสบความสำเร็จสักที หลังจากที่ทีมมีผลงานเลวร้ายสุด ๆ ไม่ได้สิทธิ์ไปลุย ยูเอฟ่า แชมเปี้ยนส์ ลีก ในฤดูกาลปัจจุบัน แต่สุดท้ายเขาก็ต่อสัญญากับทีม 2 ปี

ทั้งนี้ เวนเกอร์ ได้กล่าวว่า “ มันมีบางช่วงที่ผู้จัดการทีมจะรู้สึกเหงาและเครียด เมื่อเราออกหน้ารับผิดชอบกับทุกการเลือกของตัวเอง และการส่งดาวรุ่งลงเล่นเพียงเพราะเขาสมควรได้รับโอกาส ทุกครั้งที่พ่ายแพ้นี่มันเหมือนกับฝันร้ายสุด ๆ ข้อเสียของการคุมทีมนาน คือจะรู้สึกผิดมาก ๆ เมื่อแพ้เกมใหญ่ ๆ ยิ่งคุณอยู่กับทีมนานเท่าไหร่ มันก็ยิ่งยากมากขึ้นไปด้วย หากเรารู้ดีว่าแต่ละคนจะได้รับผลกระทบมากแค่ไหน “

“ซิลวา” เผย !! “โรนัลโด้-นานี่ “กล่อมให้ย้ายซบ “เรือใบ”

ข่าวฟุตบอล

ออกมาเปิดเผยว่าเหตุผลที่ได้เลือกย้ายมาค้าแข้งในลีกอังกฤษ ส่วนหนึ่งเป็นเพราะ คริสเตียโน่ โรนัลโด้ และ นานี่ สองเพื่อนร่วมทีมชาติ เล่าให้ฟังถึงเรื่องราวที่ดีเกี่ยวกับ แมนเชสเตอร์ แห่งนี้ ทำให้สนใจย้ายมาร่วมทีม แมนเชสเตอร์ ซิตี้ สำหรับ แบร์นาโด้ ซิลวา กองกลางชาวโปรตุเกส ระบุ อยากช่วยทีมเต็มที่

แบร์นาโด้ ซิลวา นักเตะกองกลางคนเก่งของทีม แมนเชสเตอร์ ซิตี้ ทีมสโมสรแห่งศึกพรีเมียร์ลีก อังกฤษ ได้ออกมาเปิดเผยว่า คริสเตียโน่ โรนัลโด้ และ นานี่ สองเพื่อนนักเตะร่วมทีม ได้กล่อมให้ย้ายมาค้าแข้งที่ลีกอังกฤษ ทำให้ตัดสินใจย้ายมาร่วมทีม โดยสองเพื่อนร่วมชาติได้เล่าเรื่องราวดี ๆ ของเมืองแมนเชสเตอร์ให้ฟัง

โดย ซิลวา ได้กล่าวว่า “ พวกเขาอาศัยอยู่นอกเมือง แต่ผมอยู่ในเมือง พวกเขาบอกว่าสถานที่ที่ดีสำหรับการใช้ชีวิตด้วยผู้คนที่เป็นมิตร และผมจะมีความสุข ก่อนผมจะย้ายมาทุกคนต่างก็บอกว่า เมืองแมนเชสเตอร์ มันยอดเยี่ยมมาก ๆ ผมอาจจะชอบมัน แต่เมื่อผมได้ย้ายที่นี่ เมืองแห่งนี้ เป็นเมืองที่ยอดเยี่ยม เพียงอย่างเดียวที่มีปัญหาคือเรื่องสภาพอากาศ เรื่องนั้นสร้างความประหลาดใจนิดหน่อย “

ทั้งนี้ นักเตะได้ย้ายมาจาก อาแอส โมนาโก มาร่วมทีม “เรือใบ” เมื่อเดือนพฤษภาคมที่ผ่านมา แม้จะได้รับความสนใจจาก “ผีแดง” เช่นกันก็ตาม ซึ่งนักเตะเผยว่าสาเหตุส่วนหนึ่งก็เป็นการกล่อมของ โรนัลโด้และ นานี่ ซึ่งการย้ายมาร่วมทีมแห่งนี้ก็เป็นเรื่องที่ดีอีกด้วย และตนเองก็พร้อมที่จะทำงานอย่างเต็มที่

 

ลือ เนย์มาร์ ชวน คูตี้ ไปเล่น เปแอสเช

ข่าวฟุตบอล

สื่อหลายแห่งตีข่าวออกมาว่า เมื่อไม่นานมานี้ เนย์มาร์ กองหน้าตัวเก่งชาวบราซิเลียน ซึ่งมีข่าวว่าเขาพร้อมจะย้ายออกจาก บาร์เซโลน่า เพื่อไปทำงานร่วมกับ ปารีส แซงต์ แชร์กแมง เอ่ยปากชวน ฟิลิปเป้ คูตินโญ่ กองกลางคนบ้านเดียวกัน ให้โบกมืออำลา ลิเวอร์พูล สโมสรชื่อดังของเมืองผู้ดี เพื่อไปทำงานร่วมกับเขา ในถิ่น ปาร์ค เด แพร็งส์ แม้ว่าจะมี บาร์เซโลน่า คอยให้ความสนใจ คูตี้ อยู่ก็ตาม

ตอนนี้ข่าวการย้ายทีมของ เนย์มาร์ ถือวาเป็นประเด็นน่าสนใจสุดๆ หลังจากร่ำลือกันว่าสโมสรเศรษฐีของเมืองน้ำหอม พร้อมจะทุ่มเงินก้อนโตถึง 222 ล้านยูโร หรือประมาณ 8,658 ล้านบาท เป็นทุนในการดึงตัวนักเตะรายนี้ไปเสริมทัพด้วยกัน และเชื่อว่าการย้ายทีมของ เนย์มาร์ จะเกิดขึ้นในอีกไม่ช้านี้ ก่อนจะมีข่าวเพิ่มเติมเข้ามาว่า เนย์มาร์ เพิ่งชวนเพื่อนร่วมชาติไปลุย ในลีกเอิง ในเวลาต่อมา

โดยสื่อบอกว่า เนย์มาร์ เพิ่งบอกให้ คูตี้ เลือกเมินใส่ ต่างดาว และหันไปทำงานร่วมกับ ว่าที่ทีมใหม่ของเขาแทน เพื่อมาช่วยกันประสานเกมรุกให้ทีมดังในถิ่น ปาร์ค เด แพร็งส์ แกร่งมากขึ้นในซีซั่นหน้า แต่ทั้งนี้ทั้งนั้นคงได้แต่ลุ้นกันว่างานนี้ทีมไหนจะได้ตัว ใครไปทำงาน และการย้ายทีมของ เนย์มาร์ และ คูตี้ จะมีโอกาสเกิดขึ้นมาจริงๆ หรือไม่ เพราะยากที่ต้นสังกัดของทั้งคู่จะยินดีให้นักเตะย้ายทีมจริงๆ

 

a guide to maintain limestone fireplaces

Limestone is very durable and very good choice of a fireplace!

However, the limestone is relatively soft and porous enough so that it does not require a host of benefits to prevent stains and dirty marks spoiling the surface – especially in the new limestone fireplace!

some important points for first time buyers!

limestone fireplace to be chemically sealed a good quality sealant. The improved packing material does not change the color of the limestone to any extent, but prevents light from penetrating into the stone possible spots. The fireplace must either seal the fireplace for you (probably additional cost) or a can of liquid sealant to the surface paint yourself (probably at an additional cost) supplier. These sealants do not use it costs about £ 20 or more you have, so if you see a lot less, because it might not be good enough and it's darker color of the limestone fireplace!

If there is a limestone fireplace, it should be closed twice. The first layer is allowed to completely dry, and then add the second. Make sure not to plug too much, as this may cause changes to the surface when wet!

may have to repeat the entire closing process after about six months or a year, especially if the fireplace with solid fuel. Subsequently, a limestone fireplace is probably no need for additional chemical sealing.

Cleaning limestone fireplaces

The best way to clean the dirty marks on the limestone fireplace simply to use a clean cotton cloth very dilute detergent. Do not soak the stone though!

If the coffee or wine, etc., pour onto the surface of the limestone fireplaces do not panic, just clean it thoroughly moistened cloth, and everything should be fine.

many things to do:

  1. Never use wax or spray polishes a limestone fireplace, as these products can darken the surface of the limestone, and create patches.
  2. Do not use a kitchen or bathroom cleaners, as they may also react with the limestone surface.
  3. Never let a cigarette can be a stone surface, the heat can cause brown scar.
  4. Never stand directly on the limestone vase of flowers on the surface, as a result of this constant ring signal!
  5. Never stand of red wine, tea or coffee, etc., can lead directly to a limestone fireplace and ring signals -stains!
  6. Never stand directly in coal or log fire in the area – can result in damage and stains!
  7. Never plaster down, or a limestone fireplace – the stone picks up the color of the plaster.

The above list " do this " limestone, can also be found here a Money Saving Expert Forum, as I posted it there before the first instance I write this article!

Real Fire, limestone fireplaces and caused cracks in the heat! important to be aware that the limestone is excellent in the heat of a real fire!

part of the limestone fireplace, which is close to the real fire can become extremely hot, while the edge of the fireplace can remain relatively cool. Since the right time, limestone fireplace, is almost guaranteed to be excellent!

There are things you can do to solve this kind of problem … One of the most common, is that a cut limestone fireplace / sectioned and re-sealed with the use of real fire! To

achieve this, the fire has cut the number of sections, and then re-connected to the … These are connected to operate compensators. In addition, the fireplace is usually supported by a high temperature cement, extra protection!

The joints in the fireplace now prevent the spreading of stress on the surface, thus preventing cracking of the fire – the heat plates could also be used to help protect the limestone by heat and scratches.

Source by Buck Richards

Urdu – The origins and history of the language

The term "Urdu" and its origin

The term is derived from the Turkish word Urdu means Ordu camp or military. The Urdu language developed in the Mughal armies of Muslim soldiers who belonged to different ethnic groups, including Turks, Arabs, Persians, Pathans, Balochis, Rajputs, Jats and Afghans. These soldiers lived in close contact with each other and communicate in different dialects, which slowly and gradually evolved into the present Urdu. This is the reason that it is called Lashkar Zaban Urdu language or the military.

mix to be assumed in Urdu, with different names such as the expression Urdu-e-Maullah that was sublime army of Emperor Shah Jahan and expression Rekhta which means scattered (Persian word) that is created for scientists Urdu poetry.

The history and development of Urdu language

Evolution and development of any language depends on the formation and development of the society where the language is spoken. Various invasions and conquests in one place affect the development of the language. Urdu is no exception, because it also went to the various stages of development.

Urdu belongs to the Indo-Aryan family of languages. It should be regarded as a descendant of Saur Senic Prakrit origins According to Urdu. The term means Prakrriti root or base. This is another version of Sanskrit. As Prakrit language began to emerge that affected the western Khari Boli dialects of Hindi and Haryanvi Brij Bhasa.

The future of Darya-e-Insha Latafat * became necessary to distinguish the different languages ​​Urdu, Hindi particular. It became the Hindi-Urdu controversy, and as a result Khari Boli and Devanagari became the identity of Indians, and Muslims in Urdu and Persian. In this context, the Persian and Arabic words are replaced Sanskrit served the purpose from differentiator Urdu Hindi.

Urdu founded as an independent language after 1193 AD – the time of the Muslim conquest. When the Muslims conquered this part of the continent has been the official Persian language and culture in India. As a result of the amalgamation of dialects and languages ​​of the invaders – which even Persian, Arabic and Turkish, have developed a new language, which later in Urdu. The rule of Mughals, Urdu spoken and palaces of the court and the end of the Mughal rule; Urdu was the official language of the Mughal most states. This was the time when Urdu became enriched Persianized and Persian words, sentences and even script and grammar. The future of the British new English words became part of Urdu. Many English words are accepted in real form, while the amendments adopted in the wake of others.

Urdu vocabulary is currently approximately 70% of the Persian word, and the rest are a mixture of Arabic and Turkish words. However, there are also traces of the French, Portuguese and Dutch language Urdu. But these effects are few.

Urdu taken to other parts of the country's soldiers, and Sufi saints and common people. As a result of the political, social and cultural relations between people of different language and dialects, mixed design language developed so-called "Rekhta" (Urdu and Persian mixed form). Soon people started to use the new language in the language and literature, which enrich the Urdu language and literature.

Urdu Literature

The origin of Urdu literature dating back to the 13th century during the Mughal rule in India. One of the best earliest poet who is also the use of Urdu poetry of Amir Khusro who can be called the father of Urdu. usually used along side the literature, Urdu Persian. Mughal kings great patron of the arts and literature, and it was under their rule that peaked in Urdu. There used to be a tradition, "Sheri Mehfils" (poetic gatherings) in kings' palaces. Abul Fazal and Faizi Abdul Rahim Khankhana were the famous Urdu poets of the Mughal court. Similarly, Mirza Ghalib, Allama Iqbal, Hakim Momin, Ibrahim Zauq, Mir Taqi Mir, Sauda, ​​Ibn-e-Insha and Faiz Ahmed Faiz contributed to the evolution of Urdu language, literary works.

This is indeed true that Hindi and Urdu descendants of the same language, that is, Prakrit, but where the penetration of Hindi in Devanagari script and accepted the Sanskrit script writing, absorbed Urdu words in Persian, Turkish and Arabic languages, and agreed to the Persian-Arabic script and calligraphy style of writing and Nastaliq emerged as an independent language. But next common ancestor of the two languages ​​as different as can be. There are marked grammatical, lexical and phonetic differences in both languages.

Urdu is used as a tool to raise awareness of Muslims in the freedom struggle and Muslim communities in South Asia to unite under the banner of independence from the British Raj. For this service Maulana Hali, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and Allama Iqbal remarkable people who, through poetry and prose provoked the spark necessary for the life of the Muslims. Urdu was chosen as the national language of Pakistan at the time of independence the British. Now Urdu the national language of Pakistan, spoken and understood thoroughly the majority of the population.

Note:

* The book of Ibn-e-Insha on phonetic and linguistic characteristics of Urdu and different formations work and rhetorical terms.

References:

1. George Cardona & Dhanesh Jain (ed). The Indo-Aryan languages. Routledge Publishers. London. 2003rd

2. Ram Babu Saksena. A History of Urdu literature. Sind Sagar Academy. Lahore. 1975th

3. Dr. Tariq Rehman. Peoples and Languages ​​of the pre-Islamic Indus valley. [Online] [Cited 2009 April 4]. Available: http://www.bodley.ox.ac.uk/scad/archivedwebsites/archivedwebsites/LanguagesInPreIslamicPakistan.htm

4. Ahmad Khalil Mirza Beg. Grammer Urdu: History and Structure. Bahri publications. New Delhi. 1988th

5. Zoya Zaidi. Urdu: The language and poetry. [Online] 2006 [Cited 2009 April 4]. Available: http://www.sikhspectrum.com/082006/urdu.htm

Source by Ameera Kamal

What makes a good translation?

There is certainly no absolute answer as to what makes a "good" or "bad" translation. In a sense, a good translation is one that can be done with the available budget, while meeting the goal.

However, there are cases when determining factor in the quality of the text: a well-written, easy to understand text to save their colleagues and the freedom of customers and business partners a positive impression. Here are a few things that I suggest you look out for when assessing the quality of the text has been translated into English. These are the types of criteria that a good translator must be taken when translating the text and highlight some of the common problem of inadequate translations. Some of these points, of course, refers in general translations in different languages:

– Did the translation excessive official or scientific sounding vocabulary? The words that the English often sound too scientific a direct translation of the word in other languages ​​that are simple-sounding. For example, the word "anomaly" is used when the "mistake" would sound more natural? Will the translation to mention the "lung disease" if "lung disease" would sound more natural to the general public? These are the classic symptoms of translation in a language such as French or Spanish, where the word "Latin" is a natural, normal-sounding words in these languages, but English is only suitable scientific term is very specific audience.

– Did the translation used words that are understandable, but not quite "le mot honor"? Was the text talk about "social integration" when the "social integration" would sound more natural? They would rather talk about "potential problems" of "potential problems"? Or a man "office" when the "administrative state" would be more than usual?

– adjectives or descriptive phrases where English would be more natural to use the compound? For example, the English will allow the expression as "remote access tool," while other languages ​​may be used in the phrase that literally means "tool, which is accessible remotely," or "tool, which allows remote access."

– Similarly, those expressions, "a" or "the" worn where English would use the compound. Excessive use terms like "strategy / sales" rather than "sales strategy" classic signs of translations in different languages.

– Are determinants ( "a," "the," "of," …) would be used in English language? Phrases like "seeing increased productivity" rather than simply "seeing increasing productivity," suggest an overly literal translation. Even better that the term as "Terms and Conditions", "towns and cities" rather than "conditions", "cities" suggests translation is one which usually does not allow the two nouns that same word " the "(eg French) while repeating the word" the "unnatural English.

– this translation uses a narrative style and rhetoric that sounds natural in English? We have all seen the French museum signs saying, for example, that "the king dies in 1483". translation subtler signs include excessive use of rhetorical questions (such as what appear to be common in Spanish than in English, where you can make the text sound too childish). An English translation of the decisions to be taken in, say, the use of contractions ( "no", "no" vs. "no", "no"), or preposition stranding ( "… Who is that?" Vs. "who ( m) …? "), which probably it was not a question of the source language. He was impressed accepted evoke the style that you want to give your audience?

Ultimately, the translated text is ideal for sound as if it's the original, written to convey the message in style and readability wanted.

Source by Neil Coffey

Sports and Hobbies Portugal

Called the beautiful game, the Portuguese fervent Futebol fans. Club matches of the national team, everyone has a favorite player and team to follow with great devotion.

Futebol

The game requires speed, agility, endurance, strategy. Portugal Cristiano Renaldo arguably the best player in the world, and José Marinho widely recognized as a talented manager.

The professional players, so the national team to the pinnacle of success. Many professional footballers playing other teams internationally; For example Renaldo plays for Real Madrid. Which qualify for the quadrennial World Cup approaches, the players are named to the national team. Below is a selection of team play. Premeira League of 14 teams in the Premier League and Segunda Liga fields 22 teams.

Each city and region has countless amateur leagues, and starting college and school teams of five-a-side the entire team. Of course, you can find a group of children (or adults) kicking a ball, which is a bit of free space.

Futsal

Futsal 5-a-side indoor football, is played on a hard surface. Many leagues split into divisions. 1a Divis in o in the highest league.

All other

  • Athletics: Portugal and several top long-distance runners performed well in the recent Olympic Games in London and Beijing; there are also a number of excellent cross-country runners Portugal
  • Canoeing: Portugal, several top Olympic athletes in this sport; kayaking and canoeing sport popular with tourists and locals alike
  • Cycling: Volta a Portugal the years of long-term competition; bike rides and mountain bike trails are widely available in all regions
  • Martial arts: Jogo do Pau a traditional stick fighting martial art dating from the Middle Ages (fencing and judo are also popular) [1945901million]

  • Motorsport: Rally, motor racing and the A1 Grand Prix popular spectator sport in some species (Rally Madeira and Lisbon-Dakar) receiving international attention [1945901million]

  • Bullfighting Portuguese bullfighting different styles of Spanish customs, especially the bull is not killed in the ring; running of the bulls in Pamplona, ​​Spain, popular in the Azores
  • Golf: Algarve Portugal many great courses and professional plays in the region
  • Airsoft: paint ball known in the United States, the game is popular all over the country
  • Water sports: surfing, windsurfing, kite surfing and sailing are popular, especially in the Algarve
  • Portugal is considered to have some of the best waves in Europe, mainly around the central coastal town of Peniche. Recently, the biggest wave ever surfed was recorded in Nazaré, about 30 minutes north of Peniche.

Hobby

Textile

Portugal traditional handicrafts and nunneries fiber arts began as a cottage industry. The fine linens, a living carpet, lace provided many families and has grown to celebrate the craftsmanship. Portuguese textiles are well known throughout the world.

  • Embroidery Portuguese embroidery are highly sought after for its rich colors and intricate stiches; styles vary from region to region, from the best-known examples and Madeira Castelo Branco; white embroidery (white thread on white cloth) is also popular in the modern needle workers [1945901million]

  • Carpet making / tapestry Arraiolos south of Portugal famous pure wool carpets; Similar motifs and designs in the style of Persian carpets; Portalegre is well known for its finely crafted tapestries as many as 25,000 stitches per square meter [1945901million]

  • Binding: Portuguese knitters knitting popular everywhere; As the continental knitting
  • Crocheting / Lace Generation: fine thread crochet lace and lace making developed other ways to make a living in poorer families; Well-known styles include a secret, a secret I love the lace and Loulé
  • Weaving: Serra da Estrela region well known for its thick, dense water-resistant blankets ( mantas ); 100% wool blankets paint and chemical-free [1945901million]

folk dancing

traditional Portuguese folk dance, is typically slower than the Spaniard with neighbors, reflecting the courtship and marriage customs of the native regions. Well-known dances include: fandango, Vira, corrinhdo, Chula and viranda . Dance, time, practice, perseverance and education are needed.

Source by James E Harrison

Australia, South and Central America, the Caribbean and Etiquette Tips

really can not say about the Australian and New Zealand etiquette much. These manners, but much more relaxed and less formal than in most other countries. (I heard Australians can go to work in shorts!)

in New Zealand, in particular, that people begin to sound official, but such formalities almost certainly relax. So will the volume. They are known to be more soft-spoken and often loud. Where you rank in the hierarchy of the business it is usually not important, unless you own the business, of course. And although it may be part of the Australian continent, greatly they do not like to be called the Australian.

Australia, more precisely, the warm and friendly people using firm handshake and honesty and directness when speaking. And if you disagree with something, you will almost certainly going to talk about it. Australians do not care much about the structure of the personal or class discrimination because they are informal. However, the accuracy enjoys great popularity, but not critical. Australians also keep a sense of humor, even when things are pretty tense.

In South America, more precisely, the Spanish spoken everywhere except in the Portuguese-speaking Brazil. Unlike Australia, South America less inclined to worry about the time and accuracy. Socially, they are very close to each other, then (and expect to be touched in return), which is culture shock in other countries. They eat their biggest meal for lunch around noon. Finally, social dialogue and issues of a personal nature (ie, talking about himself) is often more interesting to them, such as business and company representation.

Central America, Spanish is the most commonly spoken language. Whether in South America, they are also less concerned about time and more concerned about you personally, as a company representative. Central Americans closer resistant and touchy-Feely crowd. Eat your main meal at noon.

Mexico, more precisely, it is customary to shake hands than most other places. Unlike South Americans, Mexicans do not see titles that important. Things to do? Wear purple (color of death), joke about "Montezuma's Revenge" or put his hands on his hips.

The Caribbean, in general, handshakes are common, such as English, the primary language of the region. True, some residents prefer not surprising accented English. The more relaxed pace of life in the Caribbean, so much more informal eating habits, the accuracy is not critical, the exchange of gifts is not required, and the business will begin an extensive social conversation. Business cards, however, is very important.

Puerto Rico, in particular, exchange gifts, and immediately opened. Close to normal, and is considered quite rude to back away. Although English is widely spoken, Spanish spoken at least some appreciated.

Source by Arthur Langton

Translation – The importance and application of

The in-depth study of Art Translation needs more attention, it is not because prior to pave the way for global interaction and an excellent opportunity to participate in socio-cultural study of languages ​​and literature, but also gives the opportunity to have some importance in the area of ​​studies and literary criticism. Translation Studies can be very secure in it, as the area is an important genre since the Literary Criticism translation of art calls for peep diverse linguistic, cultural and literary content of the source language, and thus highlighting / evaluate the essence and niceties of literature for that translated language. In the context of Indian studies, bearing in mind the play pluristic multilingual and cultural character of our country, turning an important role. It is through translation that we can watch the rich heritage of India, is an integrated unit, and is proud of its cultural heritage. The importance of translation multifaceted and multidimensional activities and international importance, such as social-cultural bridge between countries has increased over the years. In today's circumstances, when things are progressing rapidly throughout the world, not only for the countries and societies must contact each other closely, but individuals also need to get in touch with members of other communities / societies in which the various parts of the country / world. In order to meet these needs translation has become an important activity that meets the individual, social and national demands.

It goes without saying that the significance and importance of translation in everyday life multidimensional and expansive. That we know of the developments and communication technology and keep up with the latest discoveries in various fields of knowledge through translation and access the translation of literature by several languages ​​and the different events that happen in the world. India was closely related to ancient civilizations such as Greek, Egyptian and Chinese. This interactive relationship would have been impossible without the knowledge of different languages ​​spoken by different communities and nations. Thus, people have realized the translation of long ago. Needless mentiuon here that the significance and importance of translation grew strongly in today's rapidly changing world. Today, the growing momentum of the knowledge of the human mind is a great need for translation of education, science and technology, mass communication, commerce and business, literature, religion, tourism, etc.

Defining Translation

in a broader sense, translation turns a text source language (SL) is a correct and understandable version of the target language (TL) without losing the original proposal. Many people think that because of the bilingual is all that is required to be a translator. This is not true. Since bilingual is an important prerequisite, no doubt, but the translation capabilities are built on and developed on the basis of their own experience prolonged communicative and writing in both languages. In fact based on the theory of translation is a process of extracting the meaning of the text in its current form and reproduce the different forms of the second language.

Traditionally suggests that translators must meet three criteria, namely: 1) knowledge of the language, 2) knowledge of the target language, and 3) knowledge of the subject matter, to complete the task successfully. Based on this principle, the translator discovers the meaning behind the forms of the source language (SL) and make every effort to reproduce the same meaning in the target language (TL) TL forms and structures as the best of its ability. Of course, and we are supposed to change the shape and the code and what should remain unchanged is the meaning and the message (Larson, 1984) .Therefore, one can detect the most common definition of translation, that is, selecting the nearest equivalent in the target language linguistic unit in the SL.

computers have been used to translate into another language, but people are still involved in the process either in writing in advance or post-processing. There is no way that a computer ever be able to translate languages, it was a human being because of the language used metaphors / images to convey meaning. Translation is more than just a couple of words in the dictionary. A quality translation requires a thorough knowledge of both the source and target language.

Translation theory, practice and procedure

Successful translation shows how closely live up to expectations, such as: to reproduce the exact meaning possible to the source text, the natural form of the receptor / target for the kind of text in a way translation and expression in all aspects of the report closely and easily understandable to the target audience / reader.Technically, translation is a process that the abstract meaning of the text in the current form and multiply to the report in various forms in other languages. Translation is now recognized independent study. The compiler can also be said that the central element of the translation process. The writer / creator will be the center of any type will be final and no two translators to translate a text in the same way. It is believed that the complexity of the TL genegally writers know where they wish to be paid. In fact, this is not the writer of the SL text who asks someone to translate the works of TL; It is primarily of interest to each translator, which asks him to translate a job in their native language. A successful translation is not a mechanical translation of the text, but also creative. You can say that he is a co-creator of the TL text. . In fact, the knowledge of two or more of a translator language is essential. This includes not only a working knowledge of two different languages, but also the knowledge of two linguistic systems, as also that of literature and culture.Such translators have different qualities that we have seen briefly talk about later.

Linguiustically, translation is studying the lexicon, grammatical structure, communication situation and cultural context of the source language and text analysis in order to determine its meaning, and then reconstructing the same meaning in the lexicon and grammatical structure which are suitable for the target language and cultural context. The translation process begins with understanding after the discovery of the source text closely and meaning of the text, translators expresses the meaning he again pulled out of the receptor / target in such a way as to minimize the loss of transformation is the translated language.This whole process could be represented by: –

Overview of translation tasks

in practice, there is always a significant change in the types of translations produced by various translators of a given text. This is because the translation is basically not Science.So Art and a number of factors proficiency language, cultural background, writing etc.determine sense of the quality of the translation, and it is because of that no two translations appear similar, if not aversion.

Accommodation Translation

Translation from one language turns to notice a fair and understandable version of that communication in another language. Sometimes a translator is that certain liberties in the original text in order to re-create the atmosphere and style of the original.This, in other words, the so-called "accommodation". It has three dimensions: cultural accommodation; compiling placement; ideological accommodation; and aesthetic accommodation.Accommodation considered as synonymous adaptation which means changes, so the target text produced in line with the spirit of the original. The translation is not merely linguistic conversion or transformation between languages, but also including accommodation by the culture, politics, aesthetics, and many other factors. Accommodation is translation, free and non-literal translation kind. In fact, this is inevitable in practice, if the translation is to maintain the essence of the message source, impact, and impact. There is a popular saying: Translation as a woman, if true, is not beautiful; If it's nice, it's not true. That is, if you want to be faithful to the text, he is bound to translate, you lose the beauty of the translated text, and if you try to maintain the beauty of the translated text, which is sure to misappropriation of the original text .. was truly an age of iron rule translation process, but over the years, when we take a closer look at accommodation or adaptation, found in most published translations, and has become a necessity, since mind the averse cultural / linguistic / regional / historical / political diversifications and backgrounds different languages ​​and literatures, lodging, if not jeopardize, are a must. Accommodation can be carried out, very wisely, even more so when the translation of such texts or poetry, which is highly artistic and immotive nature.For the translation of poetry, for example, has never been so easy. Robert Frost once said. "Poetry is what is lost in translation" This is sufficient proof of the difficulty of translation of poetry. Because poetry is essential to the aesthetic value, it becomes an aesthetic art of putting in place a basic requirement. A good poetry translator is a good measure of accommodation and adequate knowledge of the aesthetic traditions of different cultures and languages, the target reader better appreciate and achieve the desired effect.

Qualities of a good translator

A good translator must have the SL (source language) adequate knowledge from which to pay the TL, which is usually the mother Toungue / target language. In order to make an accurate translation of the SL text should have a command of grammar, syntax, semantic and pragmatic features of the SL. It is also necessary that he is well aware of the socio-cultural context of both SL and TL. A good translator must be the author's mouthpiece so that he knows and understands completely independent of the original author, he said in the text. One of the generally accepted characteristics of a good translation is to be compared to the original text or as close as possible to the SL text. It should appear as in the original, the TL translation of normal social and cultural background with some minor accommodations, if needed, of course.

Generally, it is assumed that the work of the translator is a mechanical one it makes it simple to SL TL text in a text. But this is not so. The compiler to perform a very difficult task. This manner is more difficult and complex than the original author. The creative writer composes pen down his thoughts or without external pressure. The translator should confine itself to not only the SL text, but a number of other factors can intervene in the process of translating the TL.

A good translator must have appropriate knowledge of the subject or area to which the object of the SL text that the compiler is able to capture the spirit of the SL text. If you do not have in-depth knowledge, but may not be able to produce an accurate translation is suitable for the intended purpose. For example, if you want to translate the Bible or the Gita or any other religious text, you must have sufficient knowledge of the religious and theological works.

A good translator must be careful in the choice that he makes the TL. I have to translate the style that matches your target audience. must be the style that seems to be a natural and spontaneous to the TK readers. The translation of the TL does not sound strange.

The compiler needs some tools to help him out in moments of difficulty. These tools can be as good monolingual and bilingual dictionaries, encyclopedias, e-dictionaries, glossaries and technical standards work, etc. related to the SL text.

A good translator must be patient and do not hurry to rush through during the translation of the text. I do not hesitate to discuss problems with others that she can meet. Morever do not shy away from the micro-leading research in order to arrive at the proper and appropriate equivalent.

In short, a good translator should be knowledgeable and competent bilingual, familiar with the topic / area selected in the SL text translation. He never try to insert their own ideas and personal impressions in the TL text. Its aim is to convey the content and intent of the SL text as accurately as possible into the TL text. The job of a translator is very rewarding and intellectually stimulating

Finally (based on my understanding of close study and translation activity) a few words about the upcoming translation-lovers.To and translators to translate from one language to another has never been easy endeavour.It an exercise in both tedious and cumbersome, and only those, who participated in translation work themselves capable of recognizing the complex nature of this article. I have been associated with translation work for more than three decades of translation from English, more specifically, from Kashmiri / Urdu into Hindi and back.

1-A good translator should be a good writer.

2 do not have to translate everything that has been written, it should be given to the best only.

4-a great translator adjusts / accommodates and not compromises to the original text.

5-translators as representing the best literary world and exchange ambassadors.

five-Art translation is as old as Makino, does not translate your thoughts before you speak out? Some other suggestions:

1-Try to make the mind of the writer.

two-Check can compile two or three times before finalizing the script. Put the original gateway to "set aside" and listen to / read the translation of the ear "tuned" as if the corridor was originally written in the TL.

3 If the substance is highly technical vocabulary that is characteristic of discipline, it is important that the translator least some background or experience in that discipline. A good translator of poetry and drama can be a poor choice of chemical engineering or biotechnology text.

four-native speakers of the target language if practical, especially one who knows the subject, the person may be useful as a teacher for the last scenario review. Take not without help.

Even some guidance to the translators

Do not try to hard to find the same words, in the hope that this will increase the perfection of the translation.

own language and punctuation rules are different in many ways all take care to properly torque.

Check turning two or three times at the end.

Source by Shiben Raina

The importance of Arabic translations

This article is devoted to the Arabic translation; it lay in the light of the definition of translation, it is important Arabic translation of idioms is difficult for the translators, the qualities of a good compiler and the need for translation in general.

Translation Dr. Hasanuddin Ahmed's words is: "the action or process of granting one language to another is the expression or rendering meaning of words, phrases, and even more so from one language to another.." Ulm-ul-Quran, Dr. Hasanuddin Ahmed, IAS

The Columbia Encyclopedia defines translation for the rendering of text to another language.

Katharine Barnwell (1986, p. 8) .defines as follows: the translation is again strong, as far as possible, the meaning of the original message so that this is not the language in which the translation prepare.

Translation is more than an interpretation of the text of a new, equivalent text in another language, or the substitution of the words in a language the words of one language and the production of meaning in another language, or the rendering of text or even from one language to another, this bridge of respect and understanding between people of different cultural groups, this means of communication to different groups of people, the means of cultural exchange, the assets of the cultural heritage of any nation, forming relationships and friendships are the tools of the different groups of people, or is that understanding and peace.

after all, human beings can not live alone, and all the people of the necessity and desirability of people to know each other trying to learn what others are doing, how they live, how they lived. We want to know, apart from the various ethnic, color, language and culture that we share the same understanding of love, passion, sorrow, aspiration, sympathy, jealousy and many other aspects of human nature. So long as the desire to exist, translation is the only bridge that carried out the goals, and desires.

In general terms, the aim is to build bridges between the translation of different groups of people, but the goal is the translation of theoretical sense to establish a connection to the equivalence of the source and target language; to ensure that both texts communicate the same message.

There was debate as to whether the translation of art, science, or Skill. I think a combination of all of Translation. It is a science in the sense that it needs a complete knowledge structure, grammar, syntax and semantics, and in general make-up of the two languages ​​involved. This is art, not only because of their artistic talent to reconstruct the original text in the form of a product that is presentable to the reader who does not need to be familiar with the original. It's also a skill, it requires attention to the relationship between meaning and a solid understanding of syntax and semantics to detail, coupled with a wide range of cultural backgrounds and the ability to see the translation of something that is not equal to the target language.

is a human skill, it allows people to exchange ideas and thoughts regardless of the different languages ​​used. Man is endowed with the ability to convey the feelings and experience to others through language. Because it is in the process of human communication received both spoken and written language, but if you spread on the ground, their language is different, and the need for a tool through which you can communicate and interact with each other. Thus, the need for translation to convey one's feelings and experiences felt in the other language.

Sometimes we ask ourselves, why translation between English and Arabic is it important? Both Arabic and English is the world's major languages, the book "spread of the English, page 77, the writer says:" Today the major languages ​​language of empire, past and present. Only two, Mandarin Chinese and Russian remains the language of administration, a single ethno-linguistically diverse states. -Arab the others, English, French and Spanish imperial legacy that survived the disintegration of empires helped them. "

Arabic language is one of the world's major languages. There has been great great empires language did not survive as a major language like Turkish, for example, when compared with the Turkish, Arabic, we find that the Arabs survived the disintegration of the Arab Islamic empire and therefore remains one of the major world language today, while the Turkish language that is the language of administration and authority in the Middle east, the Balkans, and in different parts of the world that was under Ottoman rule thousands of years, but in the words of the Turkish Fishman on page 77 of the book "spread of the English" 'flowed back to Anatolia collapse of the Ottoman empire. "but these words are not 100% accurate, because Turkish is spoken throughout Turkey and Northern Cyprus, not only in Anatolia which is only one part of Turkey. also the Turkish minority in the former Soviet Union republics, Bulgaria, Russia, Greece and Romania to use Turkish as their mother tongue. in addition, the language in Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan both branches of the Turkic language family. Still, it does not deny that the Turkish language has lost a lot of importance after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire.

Returning to the Arabs, to accept one of the six official languages ​​of the United Nations. Arabic language is rich in culture and civilization dating back several centuries, it was the language of Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah and the Prophet (Allah is the Arabic word of God), and it is the language of the Holy Qura & # 39; n. It has produced great figures such as Averroes (Ibn-Roshan), the medieval philosopher Aristotle; Ibn Khaldun, the first social historian; and Khalil Jibran. Between the eighth and fifteenth century, the volume of literary, scientific and academic books in Arabic and urban literacy levels among Arab readers was the largest in the world has ever known at that time. Islamic art is used Arabic script as the main art form for centuries the beauty of the work will be visible to anyone through the study of Arabic. Arab members of the members of the Semitic language family, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic languages ​​of the Christ spoke. In fact, Arabic is widely spoken; Total speaking Arabic exceed EUR 350 million.

According to the Wikipedia encyclopedia, Arabic was the main vehicle of culture, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy during the Middle Ages, so many words borrowed from a number of European languages.

J.Farris Pamela says in Linguistics, page 99

"English borrowed from Arabic algebra, candy, lemon, orange, sugar, and journals."

Not only are these words English borrowed from Arabic, but hundreds of other words borrowed from Arabic, there are a few hundred words English borrowed from the Arabic Al Mawr English-Arabic Dictionary as the typhoon, which means in Arabic 7HA & # 39; D spinach 3 (F, which means in Arabic and sesame 3E3E.

Thus, in Arabic, that is one of the world's major languages ​​makes translation between the languages ​​is very important, especially Arabic translation.

There is no doubt that English is the world language, nowadays it is the language of science, aviation, computing, diplomacy, and tourism. this is stated in the official or the official language .As many countries and the Arab, one of the six official language of the United Nations

Therefore, knowledge is one of the most important tools in the English language in achieving scientific and technological knowledge; moreover, it is a tool for communication between the different countries, different cultural groups, various companies and organizations, communities and friends .

The translation device that takes advantage of new technology and science. Scientific knowledge and multiple languages ​​and cultures are increasingly important in an expanding global economy and global well-being. It is clear that Britain and the US at the forefront of new ideas in science and technology. US pioneer in all fields of technology and science; British and American technological achievement in English, it is very important to know English to such technology and science.

Also political relations, wars and conflicts make translation is so important to have access to what is going on in different parts of the world, particularly in the Arabic translation as the English language of the great powers of the world and the Arab region the theater where vital events are taking place at present.

There is no denying that English is the cornerstone of the world's media, many important news sources in English, page 34 of the spread of the book English writer says, "the British newspaper non-English speaking countries, an indication English broad state of the world".

If anyone speaks English, you can read the news, and perspectives of a number of writers in the world, making it possible to expand your knowledge and get a broader outlook and look at the issues surrounding broader perspective. In my opinion knowing any English language specifically international passport.

English is the language of communication, the Internet spread, English was the language of communication, hundreds of millions of different races are communicating with each other via the Internet in English, so English will help strengthen ties and make friends with different cultural groups a variety of spots on the planet.

So that the language of science and technology for communication, the age of the Internet, English is so widespread, there has never been a language so prevalent, so in a short time, such as English.

between language pairs

as mentioned above, both the Arabic and English major world languages, so translation is important and relevant because of the many reasons previously mentioned.

Translation was, and continues to be the means of cultural and knowledge exchange between people throughout history, as well as to the preservation of cultural heritage.

Because the Arab Islamic empire spread of the Arabic language, in fact, the culture was enriched by contact with other civilizations: Greeks, Persians, Copts, Romans, Indians and Chinese. The large-scale movement of the ninth and tenth centuries, centered in Baghdad was in force, in which many ancient scientific and philosophical standards planted in ancient languages, especially Greek, Arabic. Many of the new wisdom increases proposed by Arab thinkers; Other texts simply surviving, only to re-emerge in Europe during the Renaissance.

Modern European languages ​​such as Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian and English owe a great debt Arabic. The English language itself contains many words borrowed from Arabic: algebra, alchemy, admiral, genius, ghoul, mare sherbet, soda, and many others. "

The device for translating cultural heritage conservation and new civilizations evolved and flourished, as Western civilization was established on the Arab and Islamic civilization, science books translated from Arabic in various European languages ​​and it was the essence of the current Western civilization.

book "Muslim contributions to World civilization" on page 118, we find that, "the 1154 AC, in the sixteenth century, the Jewish, Christian and Muslim scholars in Western Europe and in Spain translated books in Arabic into Latin in Toledo created by Academy Alfonso the Wise Sabio. The translations are then distributed to academic centers in Europe, where it became the foundation of the Renaissance, the revival of knowledge in Europe. "

Stanwood Cobb says:" Europe is indebted for all the beginnings of alchemy and chemistry in chemistry the Arabs that they have reached a translation of Arabic works into Latin. In science, as in other arts and disciplines that are practiced, it has developed into a more objective and experimental approach, as opposed to purely speculative method of the Greeks. "

"The science of algebra owes a lot of talented mathematicians

Islamic era. The name itself is a proof of the scale of the debt, the name itself is the Arabic al gebr, "a binding together."

"In addition to the volumes of Greek science, a number of scientific works in the Arabian Avicenna, Averroes and Rhazes particular, translated."

So it was in English-Arabic translation, and continues to be of great importance , the causes of past and present just different. Currently, it is known that the English translation Arabs are increasingly the subject of great concern and importance these days. Oil, strategic location, the history of Islam and the different civilizations that took place in the Arab region and the current events in the Middle East, the Arab side, and the Western desire to have the oil and dominate the western side of the region, contributing to this importance . This study highlights the Arabic translation, especially the translation of two English words into Arabic speech; the English language is full of native English speakers use idioms in many terms and expressions of everyday conversations, books, newspapers, magazines, TV shows on the Internet, because expression facet of the language, but at the same time, expressions difficult to understand, because the meaning is not what it seems at first sight. This imposes serious difficulties for translators from English to Arabic.

For example, the text of the Telegraph dated 09.19.2006 One of the headline "Pope stepped up police patrols in Temple Row"

idiom "step-up used in this article, the Idiom Connection defines the idiom" enhance " as follows: "rise to a higher or more important position, to support"

Al Mawr dictionary translates idiom "enhance" the J2J / – J6 & # 39; 9a J2 / & # 39; / – J * 6 & # 39; 9a JF / A9 J * B / E

In the context of the previous article, the idiom "enhance" can be translated to – J2 / & # 39; / is the translation of the idiom meaning.

Another example in April, the Sunday Times dated 30, 2006, the idiom "fall back" refers to the following articles:

Iran's psychopath editor, Israel

"Britain, France Germany and the United States hope to pass the motion in the UN security Council this week requires Iran to suspend the work of uranium enrichment. If Iran refuses to back down, the security Council's targeted sanctions. "

also in the Mail guardian Online dated november 7, 2005 we will find the heading

& # 39; Blair to give way to anti-terror laws "

British Prime Minister Tony Blair reluctantly accepted on Monday that he would back off the proposed anti-terror laws that would allow police to hold people up to 90 days in charge of them.

Home Secretary Charles Clarke, announcing what it is a Climbdown, however, said that the new deadline will not be as short as 28 days called on the critics of the new terrorism Bill, which Parliament is about to vote on Wednesday.

"we do not want to compromise any of the 90 days. It will compromise the security of the nation," Blair told his monthly Downing Street press conference, where he held the hope that he can minimize the impact even on order.

American Heritage Dictionary of Idioms – defines the idiom "" back to & # 39; reverse the upward course of people descend. For example, when he saw a hornet's nest on the roof, hastily backed down the ladder. This use of the term usually refers to something of a climb like a mountain or a ladder. [Mid-1800s]

Al Mawr idiom dictionary translates to "return" as –J F * & # 39; 9F 2D E7D (

Also .DJ 9F 9F J * – J * 1 & # 39 ;, 9 a suitable translation

In previous articles can be translated as .DJ 9F 9F J * – J * 1 & # 39 ;, 9, and that the translation of the idiom meaning.

Idioms is one factor that translation remains of human activity, although attempts have been made to automate and translation of computerization of natural language text, or use computers as an aid translation, but translation is primarily human activity requires skill, intelligence, human feeling, to retain the life and spirit of the original language of the translated text phrases challenge for any compiler. Because many may not be translated literally.

A better understanding of Idioms is the key to a good translation from English to Arabic. English is full of words; native English speakers use a lot of terms and phrases during the speech and writing, in other words, idioms-native English speakers use all the time. Idioms of fat that is going on in the language, but it is difficult to understand the expression, an idiom for "a phrase whose meaning can not be inferred from the meaning of the words that make it up." Webster's Online Dictionary, but some easier to find out if there is some relationship between the original meaning of the individual words. Thus, the translator must be aware of the idioms.

The idiom of "cold feet", which is defined as the Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary defines "sudden too scared to do what it was designed to do, especially something as important as a marriage," while the American Heritage Dictionary idiom as "cold leg" as

"Fear or timidity prevents after completing a course of action."

It is used in an article in the Guardian on Saturday March 25, 2006 is as follows:

& # 39; Iraq hostages rescued from crevice kidnappers

o Guards got cold feet after the US shot down

o Returning Kember, "we do not want to thank the rescuers'

Jonathan Steele Amman, Ewen MacAskill and Richard Norton-Taylor

Saturday, March 25th, 2006

the Guardian

the British hostage Norman Kember and two Canadian colleagues owe the freedom of a rift among Iraqi kidnappers of Western security source close to the rescue operation said yesterday.

This idiom used in the previous article may be paid, AB / "F" D-E & # 39; 3 DA9D 4 E & # 39; – FB5 "F" D4 "9G #H" D + B ) DA9D 4 & E ", the translation of paraphrase idiom, according to the definitions given above Therefore, better understanding idioms is the key to translate well

idiom studied and used as a unit of language;.. and to be translated in the same way. to translate expressions to the translator must first recognize expressions, to understand them, know the culture that comes with the idiom, the origin and the atmosphere in which it is used, you should do the translator / her best, at first found adequate or appropriate phrase in the target language that retains the flavor of the original, if there is no corresponding idiom or expression compiler analyzes the idiom and translates the meaning of the phrase the word to keep the color and flavor of the idiom of the source language

all colloquial language, every language is a certain rules that govern the way words together to express the facts, thoughts and feelings. The rules and exceptions unique language, despite the possible similarity to other languages. In this sense, language is always idiomatic. Within this general point of view, they usually think of "terms" as an individual phrases we use them to express something that other, more general statements can not be expressed in the same way. It is important to learn idioms to be able to communicate well. It is also interesting to study because they give us an insight into the language and the people who use them. These terms are derived from the history, literature, religion and traditions of a particular community. For this reason, expressions reveal the mindset of a community.

Because idiomatic expressions so frequently occur in both spoken and written discourse, they require special attention in the translation

Oxford Advanced Learner Dictionary defines "idiom" as the group, whose meaning differs from the meaning of individual words. That is, if anyone knows the meaning of every word; one can not understand the idiom. So it's not translated according to the terms, if we are not aware of their meaning. If we consider the idiom "New blood and translate Arabic (/ E / J /) literal, (/ E / J /) is sometimes used in Arabic means for young people. On the one hand it can be seen as an equal, on the other hand, sometimes hard to guess that the word actually means "people with a lot of energy and fresh ideas who are brought into the organization in order to improve it" as Cambridge Advanced defined Learner Dictionary as the F * "," DJ / E , / J / – this may mean that new blood in the hospital, for example, but sometimes it is misunderstood

of

previous definition Cambridge advanced Learner Dictionary, the correct translation of the idiom of the # 4 & # 39;.. 5 EDJ &) (D7 & # 39; B) H & # 39; D JHJ) H & # 39; D # AC & # 39; 1 "AC & # 39; 1 H 7 & # 39; B & # 39; * / J /) .The translation in paraphrase.

As a matter of fact, the literal translation of the idiom is often absurd or comical. The literal translation of the idiom "Back writers' Arab & # 39; D – & # 39; 1B" D.DAJ "

the literal translation of the Arabic sounds comical. The dictionary defines it as follows in the English Idioms and idiomatic expressions: If an issue on the back burner, you get low priority, "then the right translation – & # 39; D EF 9 / E & # 39; D & # 39; G * E & # 39; E -BDJD & # 39; D & # 39; GEJ)

sometimes it is an image created by the comic idiom, but sometimes it also helps to remember that idiom.

Here is an example of the English phrases that should be easy to understand the image they evoke. The English idiom literally translates in Arabic as double-faced 0H H GJF- (two-faced) in Arabic. So idiom created by the image helps to remember and understand. So we can translate EF & # 39; AB "hypocrite" or the Arab-E. "/ 9 cheater (Arabic), which will be the correct translation. Idiom created by the images of double-faced make us think of a person with two faces, which means hypocritical .Even though the images literal translation learning effective and fun way to English expression, the literal translation of itself is misleading in many cases

the true meaning of the English idiom you need to learn proper interpretation of the context have to learn within idioms sentences suitable example of a report and use is clear… for example idiom sitting duck which means "easy target" when we learn that phrase in a sentence like "His arguments are so simple was able to knock them off like sitting ducks." it will be easy to understand the idiom means "easy target" and translate properly in Arabic, if translated literally would be in Arabic (7) and "D3), which has no meaning in Arabic, but the translation of the corresponding translation paraphrase idiom that G / a 3GD

translation of ideas and meaning from one language to another leaves a lot of freedom to the translator, but translated phrases need not only translation of the ideas and the report should be given to the effect of expression language translators as possible as a translator. To translate phrases word-for-word "translation inappropriate and confusing to translate expressions, the compiler must recognize idioms to idioms, the translator must understand the goals and intentions of the author of the original work and the environment in which they are used then s / he must understand the meaning of the terms, s / he should look it up in the dictionaries to search the Internet, check with native speakers and understand a massage in the idiom and in what context is used. it's good to find a similar idiom in Arabic that carries . same meaning in the English idiom, if the compiler can not find, so it is good to analyze idiom into its meaning and translate the meaning of

Katharine Barnwell says the task is to translate the meaning of the translation of the message and not the words .

Bible translation, Katharine Barnwell, 1986, p. 12

in order to make a good translation, there must be a good translator who is fluent in two languages ​​to translate between searches. You need to understand the language which the compiler and the language in which the translation of his work. In fact, a good translator because it is extremely good communicator in the target language. A good translator must have knowledge and experience in this field; In fact, the translator is a very serious responsibility not to change the word in any way. We need to be careful not to give anything to report or leave under any part of it. In fact, the task translator more difficult than the writer, the writer free to express their opinions and views, as he sees fit and your vocabulary is like, but the translator made up his mind that the words of the writer to use, and you have to be careful not to give nothing in the report, or leave under any part of it.

Conclusion:

From what has been stated above, it is obvious that the translation of the bridge appreciation, love and friendship among nations, it is necessary for progress and prosperity .This means translation new civilizations have evolved in Western civilization has been established in the Arab and Islamic civilization, science, Arabic books translated into Latin, and it was the foundation of Western civilization.

Arabic translation was, and remains important because languages ​​are the major world languages, and even current events, wars, conflicts and struggles in our world to this important; The English version of the Arabic language and the major powers in the region where conflicts are taking place, said before several reasons

Idioms challenge for translators from English to Arabic. English is full of expressions that can not be understood as individual words .The Arabic translation of the English phrases you need a good knowledge of the two languages ​​and a good knowledge of both cultures .Idioms reflect cultural traditions, cultural identity and the history of any nation. They give an insight into the history, culture, traditions and values, morality. So freedom of speech are reflected through common human language.

Source by Fatima Ibrahim Ahmed Al Menoufy