This article is devoted to the Arabic translation; it lay in the light of the definition of translation, it is important Arabic translation of idioms is difficult for the translators, the qualities of a good compiler and the need for translation in general.
Translation Dr. Hasanuddin Ahmed's words is: "the action or process of granting one language to another is the expression or rendering meaning of words, phrases, and even more so from one language to another.." Ulm-ul-Quran, Dr. Hasanuddin Ahmed, IAS
The Columbia Encyclopedia defines translation for the rendering of text to another language.
Katharine Barnwell (1986, p. 8) .defines as follows: the translation is again strong, as far as possible, the meaning of the original message so that this is not the language in which the translation prepare.
Translation is more than an interpretation of the text of a new, equivalent text in another language, or the substitution of the words in a language the words of one language and the production of meaning in another language, or the rendering of text or even from one language to another, this bridge of respect and understanding between people of different cultural groups, this means of communication to different groups of people, the means of cultural exchange, the assets of the cultural heritage of any nation, forming relationships and friendships are the tools of the different groups of people, or is that understanding and peace.
after all, human beings can not live alone, and all the people of the necessity and desirability of people to know each other trying to learn what others are doing, how they live, how they lived. We want to know, apart from the various ethnic, color, language and culture that we share the same understanding of love, passion, sorrow, aspiration, sympathy, jealousy and many other aspects of human nature. So long as the desire to exist, translation is the only bridge that carried out the goals, and desires.
In general terms, the aim is to build bridges between the translation of different groups of people, but the goal is the translation of theoretical sense to establish a connection to the equivalence of the source and target language; to ensure that both texts communicate the same message.
There was debate as to whether the translation of art, science, or Skill. I think a combination of all of Translation. It is a science in the sense that it needs a complete knowledge structure, grammar, syntax and semantics, and in general make-up of the two languages involved. This is art, not only because of their artistic talent to reconstruct the original text in the form of a product that is presentable to the reader who does not need to be familiar with the original. It's also a skill, it requires attention to the relationship between meaning and a solid understanding of syntax and semantics to detail, coupled with a wide range of cultural backgrounds and the ability to see the translation of something that is not equal to the target language.
is a human skill, it allows people to exchange ideas and thoughts regardless of the different languages used. Man is endowed with the ability to convey the feelings and experience to others through language. Because it is in the process of human communication received both spoken and written language, but if you spread on the ground, their language is different, and the need for a tool through which you can communicate and interact with each other. Thus, the need for translation to convey one's feelings and experiences felt in the other language.
Sometimes we ask ourselves, why translation between English and Arabic is it important? Both Arabic and English is the world's major languages, the book "spread of the English, page 77, the writer says:" Today the major languages language of empire, past and present. Only two, Mandarin Chinese and Russian remains the language of administration, a single ethno-linguistically diverse states. -Arab the others, English, French and Spanish imperial legacy that survived the disintegration of empires helped them. "
Arabic language is one of the world's major languages. There has been great great empires language did not survive as a major language like Turkish, for example, when compared with the Turkish, Arabic, we find that the Arabs survived the disintegration of the Arab Islamic empire and therefore remains one of the major world language today, while the Turkish language that is the language of administration and authority in the Middle east, the Balkans, and in different parts of the world that was under Ottoman rule thousands of years, but in the words of the Turkish Fishman on page 77 of the book "spread of the English" 'flowed back to Anatolia collapse of the Ottoman empire. "but these words are not 100% accurate, because Turkish is spoken throughout Turkey and Northern Cyprus, not only in Anatolia which is only one part of Turkey. also the Turkish minority in the former Soviet Union republics, Bulgaria, Russia, Greece and Romania to use Turkish as their mother tongue. in addition, the language in Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan both branches of the Turkic language family. Still, it does not deny that the Turkish language has lost a lot of importance after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire.
Returning to the Arabs, to accept one of the six official languages of the United Nations. Arabic language is rich in culture and civilization dating back several centuries, it was the language of Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah and the Prophet (Allah is the Arabic word of God), and it is the language of the Holy Qura & # 39; n. It has produced great figures such as Averroes (Ibn-Roshan), the medieval philosopher Aristotle; Ibn Khaldun, the first social historian; and Khalil Jibran. Between the eighth and fifteenth century, the volume of literary, scientific and academic books in Arabic and urban literacy levels among Arab readers was the largest in the world has ever known at that time. Islamic art is used Arabic script as the main art form for centuries the beauty of the work will be visible to anyone through the study of Arabic. Arab members of the members of the Semitic language family, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic languages of the Christ spoke. In fact, Arabic is widely spoken; Total speaking Arabic exceed EUR 350 million.
According to the Wikipedia encyclopedia, Arabic was the main vehicle of culture, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy during the Middle Ages, so many words borrowed from a number of European languages.
J.Farris Pamela says in Linguistics, page 99
"English borrowed from Arabic algebra, candy, lemon, orange, sugar, and journals."
Not only are these words English borrowed from Arabic, but hundreds of other words borrowed from Arabic, there are a few hundred words English borrowed from the Arabic Al Mawr English-Arabic Dictionary as the typhoon, which means in Arabic 7HA & # 39; D spinach 3 (F, which means in Arabic and sesame 3E3E.
Thus, in Arabic, that is one of the world's major languages makes translation between the languages is very important, especially Arabic translation.
There is no doubt that English is the world language, nowadays it is the language of science, aviation, computing, diplomacy, and tourism. this is stated in the official or the official language .As many countries and the Arab, one of the six official language of the United Nations
Therefore, knowledge is one of the most important tools in the English language in achieving scientific and technological knowledge; moreover, it is a tool for communication between the different countries, different cultural groups, various companies and organizations, communities and friends .
The translation device that takes advantage of new technology and science. Scientific knowledge and multiple languages and cultures are increasingly important in an expanding global economy and global well-being. It is clear that Britain and the US at the forefront of new ideas in science and technology. US pioneer in all fields of technology and science; British and American technological achievement in English, it is very important to know English to such technology and science.
Also political relations, wars and conflicts make translation is so important to have access to what is going on in different parts of the world, particularly in the Arabic translation as the English language of the great powers of the world and the Arab region the theater where vital events are taking place at present.
There is no denying that English is the cornerstone of the world's media, many important news sources in English, page 34 of the spread of the book English writer says, "the British newspaper non-English speaking countries, an indication English broad state of the world".
If anyone speaks English, you can read the news, and perspectives of a number of writers in the world, making it possible to expand your knowledge and get a broader outlook and look at the issues surrounding broader perspective. In my opinion knowing any English language specifically international passport.
English is the language of communication, the Internet spread, English was the language of communication, hundreds of millions of different races are communicating with each other via the Internet in English, so English will help strengthen ties and make friends with different cultural groups a variety of spots on the planet.
So that the language of science and technology for communication, the age of the Internet, English is so widespread, there has never been a language so prevalent, so in a short time, such as English.
between language pairs
as mentioned above, both the Arabic and English major world languages, so translation is important and relevant because of the many reasons previously mentioned.
Translation was, and continues to be the means of cultural and knowledge exchange between people throughout history, as well as to the preservation of cultural heritage.
Because the Arab Islamic empire spread of the Arabic language, in fact, the culture was enriched by contact with other civilizations: Greeks, Persians, Copts, Romans, Indians and Chinese. The large-scale movement of the ninth and tenth centuries, centered in Baghdad was in force, in which many ancient scientific and philosophical standards planted in ancient languages, especially Greek, Arabic. Many of the new wisdom increases proposed by Arab thinkers; Other texts simply surviving, only to re-emerge in Europe during the Renaissance.
Modern European languages such as Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian and English owe a great debt Arabic. The English language itself contains many words borrowed from Arabic: algebra, alchemy, admiral, genius, ghoul, mare sherbet, soda, and many others. "
The device for translating cultural heritage conservation and new civilizations evolved and flourished, as Western civilization was established on the Arab and Islamic civilization, science books translated from Arabic in various European languages and it was the essence of the current Western civilization.
book "Muslim contributions to World civilization" on page 118, we find that, "the 1154 AC, in the sixteenth century, the Jewish, Christian and Muslim scholars in Western Europe and in Spain translated books in Arabic into Latin in Toledo created by Academy Alfonso the Wise Sabio. The translations are then distributed to academic centers in Europe, where it became the foundation of the Renaissance, the revival of knowledge in Europe. "
Stanwood Cobb says:" Europe is indebted for all the beginnings of alchemy and chemistry in chemistry the Arabs that they have reached a translation of Arabic works into Latin. In science, as in other arts and disciplines that are practiced, it has developed into a more objective and experimental approach, as opposed to purely speculative method of the Greeks. "
"The science of algebra owes a lot of talented mathematicians
Islamic era. The name itself is a proof of the scale of the debt, the name itself is the Arabic al gebr, "a binding together."
"In addition to the volumes of Greek science, a number of scientific works in the Arabian Avicenna, Averroes and Rhazes particular, translated."
So it was in English-Arabic translation, and continues to be of great importance , the causes of past and present just different. Currently, it is known that the English translation Arabs are increasingly the subject of great concern and importance these days. Oil, strategic location, the history of Islam and the different civilizations that took place in the Arab region and the current events in the Middle East, the Arab side, and the Western desire to have the oil and dominate the western side of the region, contributing to this importance . This study highlights the Arabic translation, especially the translation of two English words into Arabic speech; the English language is full of native English speakers use idioms in many terms and expressions of everyday conversations, books, newspapers, magazines, TV shows on the Internet, because expression facet of the language, but at the same time, expressions difficult to understand, because the meaning is not what it seems at first sight. This imposes serious difficulties for translators from English to Arabic.
For example, the text of the Telegraph dated 09.19.2006 One of the headline "Pope stepped up police patrols in Temple Row"
idiom "step-up used in this article, the Idiom Connection defines the idiom" enhance " as follows: "rise to a higher or more important position, to support"
Al Mawr dictionary translates idiom "enhance" the J2J / – J6 & # 39; 9a J2 / & # 39; / – J * 6 & # 39; 9a JF / A9 J * B / E
In the context of the previous article, the idiom "enhance" can be translated to – J2 / & # 39; / is the translation of the idiom meaning.
Another example in April, the Sunday Times dated 30, 2006, the idiom "fall back" refers to the following articles:
Iran's psychopath editor, Israel
"Britain, France Germany and the United States hope to pass the motion in the UN security Council this week requires Iran to suspend the work of uranium enrichment. If Iran refuses to back down, the security Council's targeted sanctions. "
also in the Mail guardian Online dated november 7, 2005 we will find the heading
& # 39; Blair to give way to anti-terror laws "
British Prime Minister Tony Blair reluctantly accepted on Monday that he would back off the proposed anti-terror laws that would allow police to hold people up to 90 days in charge of them.
Home Secretary Charles Clarke, announcing what it is a Climbdown, however, said that the new deadline will not be as short as 28 days called on the critics of the new terrorism Bill, which Parliament is about to vote on Wednesday.
"we do not want to compromise any of the 90 days. It will compromise the security of the nation," Blair told his monthly Downing Street press conference, where he held the hope that he can minimize the impact even on order.
American Heritage Dictionary of Idioms – defines the idiom "" back to & # 39; reverse the upward course of people descend. For example, when he saw a hornet's nest on the roof, hastily backed down the ladder. This use of the term usually refers to something of a climb like a mountain or a ladder. [Mid-1800s]
Al Mawr idiom dictionary translates to "return" as –J F * & # 39; 9F 2D E7D (
Also .DJ 9F 9F J * – J * 1 & # 39 ;, 9 a suitable translation
In previous articles can be translated as .DJ 9F 9F J * – J * 1 & # 39 ;, 9, and that the translation of the idiom meaning.
Idioms is one factor that translation remains of human activity, although attempts have been made to automate and translation of computerization of natural language text, or use computers as an aid translation, but translation is primarily human activity requires skill, intelligence, human feeling, to retain the life and spirit of the original language of the translated text phrases challenge for any compiler. Because many may not be translated literally.
A better understanding of Idioms is the key to a good translation from English to Arabic. English is full of words; native English speakers use a lot of terms and phrases during the speech and writing, in other words, idioms-native English speakers use all the time. Idioms of fat that is going on in the language, but it is difficult to understand the expression, an idiom for "a phrase whose meaning can not be inferred from the meaning of the words that make it up." Webster's Online Dictionary, but some easier to find out if there is some relationship between the original meaning of the individual words. Thus, the translator must be aware of the idioms.
The idiom of "cold feet", which is defined as the Cambridge Advanced learners dictionary defines "sudden too scared to do what it was designed to do, especially something as important as a marriage," while the American Heritage Dictionary idiom as "cold leg" as
"Fear or timidity prevents after completing a course of action."
It is used in an article in the Guardian on Saturday March 25, 2006 is as follows:
& # 39; Iraq hostages rescued from crevice kidnappers
o Guards got cold feet after the US shot down
o Returning Kember, "we do not want to thank the rescuers'
Jonathan Steele Amman, Ewen MacAskill and Richard Norton-Taylor
Saturday, March 25th, 2006
the British hostage Norman Kember and two Canadian colleagues owe the freedom of a rift among Iraqi kidnappers of Western security source close to the rescue operation said yesterday.
This idiom used in the previous article may be paid, AB / "F" D-E & # 39; 3 DA9D 4 E & # 39; – FB5 "F" D4 "9G #H" D + B ) DA9D 4 & E ", the translation of paraphrase idiom, according to the definitions given above Therefore, better understanding idioms is the key to translate well
idiom studied and used as a unit of language;.. and to be translated in the same way. to translate expressions to the translator must first recognize expressions, to understand them, know the culture that comes with the idiom, the origin and the atmosphere in which it is used, you should do the translator / her best, at first found adequate or appropriate phrase in the target language that retains the flavor of the original, if there is no corresponding idiom or expression compiler analyzes the idiom and translates the meaning of the phrase the word to keep the color and flavor of the idiom of the source language
all colloquial language, every language is a certain rules that govern the way words together to express the facts, thoughts and feelings. The rules and exceptions unique language, despite the possible similarity to other languages. In this sense, language is always idiomatic. Within this general point of view, they usually think of "terms" as an individual phrases we use them to express something that other, more general statements can not be expressed in the same way. It is important to learn idioms to be able to communicate well. It is also interesting to study because they give us an insight into the language and the people who use them. These terms are derived from the history, literature, religion and traditions of a particular community. For this reason, expressions reveal the mindset of a community.
Because idiomatic expressions so frequently occur in both spoken and written discourse, they require special attention in the translation
Oxford Advanced Learner Dictionary defines "idiom" as the group, whose meaning differs from the meaning of individual words. That is, if anyone knows the meaning of every word; one can not understand the idiom. So it's not translated according to the terms, if we are not aware of their meaning. If we consider the idiom "New blood and translate Arabic (/ E / J /) literal, (/ E / J /) is sometimes used in Arabic means for young people. On the one hand it can be seen as an equal, on the other hand, sometimes hard to guess that the word actually means "people with a lot of energy and fresh ideas who are brought into the organization in order to improve it" as Cambridge Advanced defined Learner Dictionary as the F * "," DJ / E , / J / – this may mean that new blood in the hospital, for example, but sometimes it is misunderstood
previous definition Cambridge advanced Learner Dictionary, the correct translation of the idiom of the # 4 & # 39;.. 5 EDJ &) (D7 & # 39; B) H & # 39; D JHJ) H & # 39; D # AC & # 39; 1 "AC & # 39; 1 H 7 & # 39; B & # 39; * / J /) .The translation in paraphrase.
As a matter of fact, the literal translation of the idiom is often absurd or comical. The literal translation of the idiom "Back writers' Arab & # 39; D – & # 39; 1B" D.DAJ "
the literal translation of the Arabic sounds comical. The dictionary defines it as follows in the English Idioms and idiomatic expressions: If an issue on the back burner, you get low priority, "then the right translation – & # 39; D EF 9 / E & # 39; D & # 39; G * E & # 39; E -BDJD & # 39; D & # 39; GEJ)
sometimes it is an image created by the comic idiom, but sometimes it also helps to remember that idiom.
Here is an example of the English phrases that should be easy to understand the image they evoke. The English idiom literally translates in Arabic as double-faced 0H H GJF- (two-faced) in Arabic. So idiom created by the image helps to remember and understand. So we can translate EF & # 39; AB "hypocrite" or the Arab-E. "/ 9 cheater (Arabic), which will be the correct translation. Idiom created by the images of double-faced make us think of a person with two faces, which means hypocritical .Even though the images literal translation learning effective and fun way to English expression, the literal translation of itself is misleading in many cases
the true meaning of the English idiom you need to learn proper interpretation of the context have to learn within idioms sentences suitable example of a report and use is clear… for example idiom sitting duck which means "easy target" when we learn that phrase in a sentence like "His arguments are so simple was able to knock them off like sitting ducks." it will be easy to understand the idiom means "easy target" and translate properly in Arabic, if translated literally would be in Arabic (7) and "D3), which has no meaning in Arabic, but the translation of the corresponding translation paraphrase idiom that G / a 3GD
translation of ideas and meaning from one language to another leaves a lot of freedom to the translator, but translated phrases need not only translation of the ideas and the report should be given to the effect of expression language translators as possible as a translator. To translate phrases word-for-word "translation inappropriate and confusing to translate expressions, the compiler must recognize idioms to idioms, the translator must understand the goals and intentions of the author of the original work and the environment in which they are used then s / he must understand the meaning of the terms, s / he should look it up in the dictionaries to search the Internet, check with native speakers and understand a massage in the idiom and in what context is used. it's good to find a similar idiom in Arabic that carries . same meaning in the English idiom, if the compiler can not find, so it is good to analyze idiom into its meaning and translate the meaning of
Katharine Barnwell says the task is to translate the meaning of the translation of the message and not the words .
Bible translation, Katharine Barnwell, 1986, p. 12
in order to make a good translation, there must be a good translator who is fluent in two languages to translate between searches. You need to understand the language which the compiler and the language in which the translation of his work. In fact, a good translator because it is extremely good communicator in the target language. A good translator must have knowledge and experience in this field; In fact, the translator is a very serious responsibility not to change the word in any way. We need to be careful not to give anything to report or leave under any part of it. In fact, the task translator more difficult than the writer, the writer free to express their opinions and views, as he sees fit and your vocabulary is like, but the translator made up his mind that the words of the writer to use, and you have to be careful not to give nothing in the report, or leave under any part of it.
From what has been stated above, it is obvious that the translation of the bridge appreciation, love and friendship among nations, it is necessary for progress and prosperity .This means translation new civilizations have evolved in Western civilization has been established in the Arab and Islamic civilization, science, Arabic books translated into Latin, and it was the foundation of Western civilization.
Arabic translation was, and remains important because languages are the major world languages, and even current events, wars, conflicts and struggles in our world to this important; The English version of the Arabic language and the major powers in the region where conflicts are taking place, said before several reasons
Idioms challenge for translators from English to Arabic. English is full of expressions that can not be understood as individual words .The Arabic translation of the English phrases you need a good knowledge of the two languages and a good knowledge of both cultures .Idioms reflect cultural traditions, cultural identity and the history of any nation. They give an insight into the history, culture, traditions and values, morality. So freedom of speech are reflected through common human language.
Source by Fatima Ibrahim Ahmed Al Menoufy