Urdu – The origins and history of the language

The term "Urdu" and its origin

The term is derived from the Turkish word Urdu means Ordu camp or military. The Urdu language developed in the Mughal armies of Muslim soldiers who belonged to different ethnic groups, including Turks, Arabs, Persians, Pathans, Balochis, Rajputs, Jats and Afghans. These soldiers lived in close contact with each other and communicate in different dialects, which slowly and gradually evolved into the present Urdu. This is the reason that it is called Lashkar Zaban Urdu language or the military.

mix to be assumed in Urdu, with different names such as the expression Urdu-e-Maullah that was sublime army of Emperor Shah Jahan and expression Rekhta which means scattered (Persian word) that is created for scientists Urdu poetry.

The history and development of Urdu language

Evolution and development of any language depends on the formation and development of the society where the language is spoken. Various invasions and conquests in one place affect the development of the language. Urdu is no exception, because it also went to the various stages of development.

Urdu belongs to the Indo-Aryan family of languages. It should be regarded as a descendant of Saur Senic Prakrit origins According to Urdu. The term means Prakrriti root or base. This is another version of Sanskrit. As Prakrit language began to emerge that affected the western Khari Boli dialects of Hindi and Haryanvi Brij Bhasa.

The future of Darya-e-Insha Latafat * became necessary to distinguish the different languages ​​Urdu, Hindi particular. It became the Hindi-Urdu controversy, and as a result Khari Boli and Devanagari became the identity of Indians, and Muslims in Urdu and Persian. In this context, the Persian and Arabic words are replaced Sanskrit served the purpose from differentiator Urdu Hindi.

Urdu founded as an independent language after 1193 AD – the time of the Muslim conquest. When the Muslims conquered this part of the continent has been the official Persian language and culture in India. As a result of the amalgamation of dialects and languages ​​of the invaders – which even Persian, Arabic and Turkish, have developed a new language, which later in Urdu. The rule of Mughals, Urdu spoken and palaces of the court and the end of the Mughal rule; Urdu was the official language of the Mughal most states. This was the time when Urdu became enriched Persianized and Persian words, sentences and even script and grammar. The future of the British new English words became part of Urdu. Many English words are accepted in real form, while the amendments adopted in the wake of others.

Urdu vocabulary is currently approximately 70% of the Persian word, and the rest are a mixture of Arabic and Turkish words. However, there are also traces of the French, Portuguese and Dutch language Urdu. But these effects are few.

Urdu taken to other parts of the country's soldiers, and Sufi saints and common people. As a result of the political, social and cultural relations between people of different language and dialects, mixed design language developed so-called "Rekhta" (Urdu and Persian mixed form). Soon people started to use the new language in the language and literature, which enrich the Urdu language and literature.

Urdu Literature

The origin of Urdu literature dating back to the 13th century during the Mughal rule in India. One of the best earliest poet who is also the use of Urdu poetry of Amir Khusro who can be called the father of Urdu. usually used along side the literature, Urdu Persian. Mughal kings great patron of the arts and literature, and it was under their rule that peaked in Urdu. There used to be a tradition, "Sheri Mehfils" (poetic gatherings) in kings' palaces. Abul Fazal and Faizi Abdul Rahim Khankhana were the famous Urdu poets of the Mughal court. Similarly, Mirza Ghalib, Allama Iqbal, Hakim Momin, Ibrahim Zauq, Mir Taqi Mir, Sauda, ​​Ibn-e-Insha and Faiz Ahmed Faiz contributed to the evolution of Urdu language, literary works.

This is indeed true that Hindi and Urdu descendants of the same language, that is, Prakrit, but where the penetration of Hindi in Devanagari script and accepted the Sanskrit script writing, absorbed Urdu words in Persian, Turkish and Arabic languages, and agreed to the Persian-Arabic script and calligraphy style of writing and Nastaliq emerged as an independent language. But next common ancestor of the two languages ​​as different as can be. There are marked grammatical, lexical and phonetic differences in both languages.

Urdu is used as a tool to raise awareness of Muslims in the freedom struggle and Muslim communities in South Asia to unite under the banner of independence from the British Raj. For this service Maulana Hali, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and Allama Iqbal remarkable people who, through poetry and prose provoked the spark necessary for the life of the Muslims. Urdu was chosen as the national language of Pakistan at the time of independence the British. Now Urdu the national language of Pakistan, spoken and understood thoroughly the majority of the population.


* The book of Ibn-e-Insha on phonetic and linguistic characteristics of Urdu and different formations work and rhetorical terms.


1. George Cardona & Dhanesh Jain (ed). The Indo-Aryan languages. Routledge Publishers. London. 2003rd

2. Ram Babu Saksena. A History of Urdu literature. Sind Sagar Academy. Lahore. 1975th

3. Dr. Tariq Rehman. Peoples and Languages ​​of the pre-Islamic Indus valley. [Online] [Cited 2009 April 4]. Available: http://www.bodley.ox.ac.uk/scad/archivedwebsites/archivedwebsites/LanguagesInPreIslamicPakistan.htm

4. Ahmad Khalil Mirza Beg. Grammer Urdu: History and Structure. Bahri publications. New Delhi. 1988th

5. Zoya Zaidi. Urdu: The language and poetry. [Online] 2006 [Cited 2009 April 4]. Available: http://www.sikhspectrum.com/082006/urdu.htm

Source by Ameera Kamal

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